Tag: territorial claims

Presentations from the International Conference on Maritime Challenges and Market Opportunities

Maritime disputes have emerged as major potential flashpoints in the Asia-Pacific region. The tense confrontations that have threatened regional security and stability are fueled by the complex historical relationships between countries, disagreement over maritime sovereignty issues, divergent understandings of international law, and many countries’ relentless pursuit of their national interests. Yet oceans need not be a source of regional tensions. On the contrary, these vast maritime expanses provide opportunities for cooperation among all relevant stakeholders. Oceans are crucial to international trade, global development, and human wellbeing and will play an increasingly significant in the global economy in the future.

To broaden our knowledge of the relationship between regional maritime and global economic issues, Taiwan Center for Security Studies (TCSS) hosted the International Conference on Maritime Challenges and Market Opportunities: “Facilitating Cooperation in the Asia-Pacific” on August 29–30, 2017, which was attended by domestic and foreign participants from academia and industry. In addition to maritime security and geopolitical issues, the conference also explored other key topics related to maritime affairs, including the sustainability of the ocean economy, fishing, shipbuilding, maritime energy (e.g. tidal power, offshore wind energy), seabed resources, emerging blue-water technologies, maritime startups, marine environmental protection, marine tourism, and the oceanic cultural and creative industries.

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South China Sea Lawfare: Post-Arbitration Policy Options and Future Prospects

Report · 2017

Download the report: South China Sea Lawfare (2017)

On July 12, 2016, the Tribunal in the South China Sea arbitration case issued its Award, officially bringing closure to the arbitral proceedings initiated by the Philippines against China in early 2013. In the Award, the Tribunal’s conclusions overwhelmingly supported the Philippines’ positions regarding almost all of the fifteen submissions in its Memorial. The Tribunal also rejected or opted not to take into account the vast majority of China’s positions as elaborated through official statements and was similarly not persuaded by arguments issued or evidence presented by Taiwan.

The Award, especially due to relevant countries’ policy responses and the enduring controversy over its content, has significant implications for the South China Sea maritime territorial disputes, which remain one of the most potent and complex issues affecting stability and security in the Asia-Pacific region and beyond. In the post-arbitration context, rival claimants and major stakeholders have been forced to recalibrate their rhetoric, strategies, and policies in order to safeguard their interests and rights in the maritime area while maintaining an image internationally that is conducive to achieving these aims.

This report, entitled South China Sea Lawfare: Post-Arbitration Policy Options and Future Prospects, builds upon the success of the first South China Sea Lawfare report that was published in early 2016. By bringing together an international team of experts writing on the different approaches of each claimant and stakeholder, it aims to serve as a more inclusive reference on post-arbitration South China Sea policy issues than the many other analyses published in the aftermath of the Award.

In Part I: Introduction, the report begins by giving a brief overview of the arbitral proceedings in historical perspective and summarizing the legal positions of the parties involved and the Tribunal’s conclusions as described in its two awards. In Part II: Rival Claimants and Part III: Major Stakeholders, the chapters focus on (1) the specific policy approaches of each country or actor; (2) the implications of the Award for each; (3) the legal, diplomatic, and security policy options available to them; and (4) their future prospects in the post-arbitration context of the South China Sea. In Part IV: Conclusion, the report explores the implications of the Award for international maritime law and the future of maritime territorial disputes. By encouraging and compiling a diversity of views on the South China Sea, the editors hope that this report will serve over the coming years as a resource for policymakers, a foundation for future research, and an example of constructive international collaboration in the midst of the disputes.

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Why do non-claimant countries care about the South China Sea?

Major non-claimant stakeholders, such as Australia, India, Japan, Russia, the United States, and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), each have their own reasons for becoming involved in the maritime territorial disputes.

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Which countries claim the South China Sea?

Based on the International Hydrographic Organization’s definition of the maritime area, there are a total of seven claimants to the maritime features and/or waters of the South China Sea. These include Brunei, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam.

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Philippines v. China Arbitration Case: Official Responses to the Award

Features · 2016

South China Sea Think Tank compiles the official responses of claimants and major stakeholders to the Award of July 12, 2016, in the Philippines v. China arbitration case.

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Philippines v. China Arbitration Case: Summary of the Philippines’ Submissions and Tribunal’s Awards

Features · 2016

South China Sea Think Tank summarizes the Philippines’ submissions and additional claims, the Tribunal’s conclusions contained in its Award on Jurisdiction and Admissibility, and its conclusions made in its final Award in the Philippines v. China arbitration case.

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South China Sea Lawfare: Legal Perspectives and International Responses to the Philippines v. China Arbitration Case

Report · 2016

As tensions in the South China Sea have risen, the Philippines v. China arbitration case and the Philippines’ decision, after many years of unsuccessful bilateral negotiations, to engage in lawfare have become a focal point of the maritime territorial disputes, leading many state and non-state actors to become increasingly involved in and vocal about South China Sea issues. The controversial nature of the issue has resulted in a proliferation of heated diplomatic and military interactions and, in many instances, hindered meaningful cooperation between relevant stakeholders. This report, as the result of a collaborative effort between authors from ten countries, aims to serve as an example of constructive international cooperation on South China Sea issues in the midst of heightened regional tensions.

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Keeping Balance: Taiwan’s Answer to Tensions in the South China Sea

Issue Briefings, 13 · 2016

In the face of mounting challenges in the South China Sea, Taiwan must carefully consider its options and respond accordingly in order to defend sovereignty over its occupied features and maintain a role of peacemaker in the region.

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